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Olfactory bulb MRI

Olfactory Bulb Magnetic Resonance Imaging in SARS-CoV-2-Induced Anosmia: The First Repor Thirty healthy volunteers underwent MRI with 3D MP-RAGE, 3D CISS and 2D turbo spin echo sequences to compare the detectability of olfactory fibers, bulb, tract, and sulcus. The overall detectability was slightly better using MP-RAGE compared with CISS. Both 3D sequences were superior to 2D turbo spin echo Preliminary results suggest the presence of clinical MRI abnormalities, particularly in the olfactory bulbs in anosmic patients with COVID-19. Anosmia and taste disturbance are early warning signs that could be important in improving the detection and diagnosis of COVID-19, and also in monitoring disease Olfactory Bulb Imaging. MRI of olfactory nerves provides useful anatomical details for evaluation of olfactory bulb, olfactory nerve filia and primary olfactory cortex in patients with anosmia. Majority of the literature on postviral anosmia evaluated the olfactory bulb volume, which showed correlation with olfactory function (23,24)

Olfactory bulb volume and olfactory function after radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. Veyseller B, Ozucer B, Degirmenci N, Gurbuz D, Tambas M, Altun M, Aksoy F, Ozturan O. Auris Nasus Larynx . 2014 Oct;41(5):436-40. doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2014.02.004 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the olfactory bulb volume as assessed with MR imaging is known to reflect olfactory function, it is not always measured during olfactory pathway assessments in clinical settings. We aimed to evaluate the utility of visual olfactory bulb atrophy and neuropathy analyses using MR imaging in patients with olfactory dysfunction The olfactory nerve (CN I) is the first and most rostral of the cranial nerves . Along with the optic nerve, it is actually a peripheral outpost of the central nervous system. The bipolar cell is the first-order sensory neuron located in the roof of the nasal cavity, immediately inferior to the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone After a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 and approximately 2 months duration of anosmia, an MRI was performed that showed clear interval olfactory bulb atrophy. This diagnostic finding is of prognostic importance and indicates that the olfactory entry point to the brain should be further investigated to improve our understanding of COVID infectious pathophysiology

Olfactory neuroblastomas, also known as esthesioneuroblastomas, (the spelling aesthesioneuroblastoma is archaic) are tumors arising from the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium in the superior recess of the nasal cavity.. They usually present as a soft tissue mass in the superior olfactory recess involving the anterior and middle ethmoid air-cells on one side and extending through the. MRI of MPIO labeled cells was also used to measure the degree of cell integration into the olfactory bulb once the neuroblasts depart the RMS. For this measurement, it was assumed that every hypo-intense voxel was due to a single labeled cell Smell loss is one of the main symptoms in chronic rhinonasal sinusitis. MRI has been indicated to evaluate the size of the olfactory bulb in such patients. The aim of this study was to assess the volumetric changes of the olfactory bulb in patients with sinonasal polyposis before and after treatment using MRI

Olfactory Bulb Magnetic Resonance Imaging in SARS-CoV-2

Paranasal sinus CTs and MRI dedicated to olfactory nerves were acquired. On MRI, quantitative measurements of olfactory bulb volumes and olfactory sulcus depth and qualitative assessment of olfactory bulb morphology, signal intensity, and olfactory nerve filia architecture were performed Coronal T1WI (a) and T2WI (b) MRI images of the normal location and appearances of the olfactory bulbs (OBs). These lie within the olfactory grooves (OlfGr) of the anterior cranial fossa. Notice how the olfactory bulbs are surrounded by T2 hyperintense CSF Case Discussion. Infant with a ventricular septal defect (VSD), bicuspid aortic valve, 11 ribs, and duplication of chromosome 19 on the chromosomal analysis (uncertain significance). Absent olfactory bulb was an incidental finding on brain MR, along with other incidental findings Olfactory Bulb Volume and Olfactory Sulcus Depth in Patients With OSA: An MRI Evaluation. Doğan A(1), Bayar Muluk N(2), Şahin H(3). Author information: (1)Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. (2)ENT Department, Faculty of Medicine, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale, Turkey

MRI detection of olfactory bulb and trac

Microbleeding (methemoglobin) in the olfactory bulb is considered when there is a hyperintense olfactory bulb, compared with the normal cortex or the normal contralateral bulb, on pregadolinium fat-suppressed T1WI. Brain MR imaging of patients with COVID-19 was evaluated from April 1, 2020, to May 18, 2020 Olfactory bulb volumes were measured by two neuroradiologists using 3D MR data sets. The olfactory function was categorized as normosmia, hyposmia, and anosmia on the basis of objective olfactometry. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for objective olfactometry and olfactory bulb volumes on MRI Olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth measurements were performed. Nasal septal deviation (SD) was also evaluated and recorded as no SD, deviation to the right, and deviation to the left in all groups represent olfactory bulb intensity abnormality and may be an enhancement or microbleeding (methemoglobin), as interpreted in the present study. Microbleeding (methemoglobin) in the ol-factory bulb is considered when there is a hyperintense olfactory bulb, compared with the normal cortex or the normal contralat

Morphological Abnormalities of the Olfactory Bulb on MRI

  1. The olfactory bulb ends with the olfactory tract and it is closely related to the olfactory sulcus (OS) of the frontal lobe. OB volume has been evaluated with MRI in different studies in pathological conditions or normal subjects and OB volume changes have been reported in cases of olfactory dysfunction
  2. Abstract. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have symptoms of anosmia or partial loss of the sense of smell, often accompanied by changes in taste. We report 5 cases (3 with anosmia) of adult patients with COVID-19 in whom injury to the olfactory bulbs was interpreted as microbleeding or abnormal enhancement on MR imaging
  3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly ordered in the workup of the anosmic patient. Anosmia is associated with relatively reduced olfactory bulb and tract (OBT) volumes on MRI in a variety of clinical settings, but congenitally anosmic patients will characteristically have olfactory nerve aplasia or hypoplasia
  4. MRI measurements revealed significantly smaller olfactory bulb volume in patients with chronic major depression as compared to the control group. Furthermore, we detected a negative correlation between BDI score and olfactory bulb volume. Conclusions: Olfactory bulb volumes are notably smaller in patients with chronic major depression treate
  5. who presented with anosmia and underwent an MRI exam at 12 and 25 days from symptom onset, respectively. Abstract Anosmia and ageusia are very common symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Here we present magnetic resonance imaging evidence of brain signal alterations in the olfactory bulbs and the piriform cortex, presum-ably caused by SARS-CoV-2
  6. The MRI studied the volume of the olfactory bulb and the signal intensity of the olfactory cortex. It predicts the prognosis and differential diagnosis. In our case, we didn't find any abnormality of signal or morphology of olfactory region, neither in the sinuses and nasal cavities (FIGURE 1)
  7. imum olfactory bulb volume in the literature of 54 mm 3 in women < 45 years.

The olfactory pathways, including the cortical projections (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging not shown), were normal. Sensory recovery and negative RT-PCR (positive on days 1, 2, and 10) appeared on day 14. MRI on day 24 confirmed the normalization of olfactory bulb signal and volumes (left: 22 mm3, right: 17 mm3) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T Fetal MRI was used for the first time in 1983 [] and is currently used to assess the fetal central nervous system.It has greatly benefited from the recent advent of fast single-shot MR sequences [2-6].Normal olfactory pathways have been well studied by MRI in adults and children [7-10].Olfactory pathway abnormalities have been also exhaustively described in Kallmann syndrome [11-19], the.

Olfactor bulb and olfactor nerve were evaluated by MRI due to the patient's odor and taste disorder (Fig. 2 a, b) There were no anomalies of the olfactory bulbs and tracts. Also this patient anosmia resolved in 3 days Thirty healthy volunteers underwent MRI with 3D MP-RAGE, 3D CISS and 2D turbo spin echo sequences to compare the detectability of olfactory fibers, bulb, tract, and sulcus. The overall detectability was slightly better using MP-RAGE compared with CISS. Both 3D sequences were superior to 2D turbo spin echo. We therefore recommend including the MP-RAGE sequence in an MR imaging protocol of the.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a method to automatically segment olfactory bulbs and compute their volume in T2-weighted brain MRI. So this is an overview of our methods, and it consists of several steps. First, we localize the center of each olfactory bulb in an image The olfactory bulb has a laminarized structure, whereby each layer contains distinctive cell types and synapses, and receives specific input fibers. This makes the olfactory bulb ideal for studying the neural basis of fMRI. The goal of this project is to establish detailed relationships of the hemodynamic responses to the activity of specific. BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Olfactory dysfunction is commonly associated with IPD. We here report the association of OB volume and OS depth with olfactory function in patients with PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphometric analyses by using MR imaging and the Japanese T&T olfactometer threshold test were used to evaluate olfactory structure and function in 29 patients with PD and 29 age- and sex. MRI brain in same girl. a Coronal fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) MR head image at age 4 years demonstrates absent olfactory bulb and olfactory tract.b Axial T2-W image at 2 months of age demonstrates parallel lateral ventricles.c The molar tooth sign is demonstrated on axial T2-W image (arrows) in the same girl at age 4 years Women Missing Brain's Olfactory Bulbs Can Still Smell, Puzzling Scientists. Researchers have discovered a small group of people that seem to defy medical science. The 29-year-old woman's brain.

Assessment and discrimination of odor stimuli in rat olfactory bulb by dynamic functional MRI Fuqiang Xu*†, Ikuhiro Kida‡, Fahmeed Hyder*, and Robert G. Shulman§ Departments of *Diagnostic Radiology, ‡Neurology, and §Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510 Contributed by Robert G. Shulman, July 11, 200 Based on the MRI findings, including the slight olfactory bulb changes, we can speculate that SARS-CoV-2 might invade the brain through the olfactory pathway and cause an olfactory dysfunction of sensorineural origin; cerebrospinal fluid and pathology studies are required to confirm this hypothesis incidence of stroke was reported.17,18 Olfactory bulb volume measurement on MRI shows the olfactory functions.19,20 Therefore, we investigated olfactory functions of patients with OSA by measuring OB volume and OS depth on MRI. Olfac-tory bulb volumes of the OSA group were significantly lower Table 1

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of patients with olfactory dysfunction and COVID-19. (a) Coronal brain MRI with T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence of a patient with persistent anosmia and COVID-19 showing thickening and edema of the olfactory mucosa (arrows) and moderate visual atrophy of the olfactory bulbs (arrowheads) The current report used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to objectively measure olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcal depth in patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls. Additional measures were obtained to assess olfactory function. The olfactory bulb and sulcus were manually traced on structural 3T MRIs for 25 right-handed male patients diagnosed with. The olfactory bulb is a central part of the rodent brain, as olfaction is a key sense in mammals, homing over 1000 genes for the detection of odors out of approximately 30000 genes . Additionally, approximately 5% of the whole brain weight is covered by the olfactory bulb . The latter has also been studied extensively in electrophysiology, but.

Anatomical MRI. Olfactory bulb layers were defined on high-resolution anatomical images and verified with classical histological staining methods in one rat (303 g). Anatomical images were acquired using a fast spin-echo sequence and had a 128 × 128 matrix size, 7 × 7 mm 2 FOV. Abstract: There is increasing histopathological evidence that the olfactory bulb and tract (OBT) is a primary focus of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Correspondingly, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant atrophy of the OBT in manifest AD Using MRI, Smitka et al. showed that 59% of healthy human subjects had a central lucency in the OB, interpreted as an olfactory bulb ventricle (OBV). On contrast, autopsy results identified an OBV in only 7% of cadavers Here we show the ability to detect individual olfactory glomeruli using manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Glomeruli are anatomically distinct structures ( approximately 150 microm in diameter) on the surface of the olfactory bulb that represent the first processing units for olfactory sensory information

  1. Each patient prospectively underwent a validated olfactory test (Sniffin' Sticks test) and a brain MRI. Results Hypersignal intensity lesions of the central olfactory system were found in 3 subjects on 3D T2 FLAIR and 2D T2 High Resolution images with a lesion involving the olfactory bulbs and/or the orbitofrontal cortex
  2. vertebrates: olfactory bulb, telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, and the introduction of deformations due to tissue handling. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a tool that allows the non-invasive assessment of the neuroanatomy of virtually any species that fits the scanner bore. MRI has been employed to generat
  3. Finding two women without olfactory bulbs, but with a sense of smell seemed like too much of a coincidence, so the team did a deep dive into the data, analyzing MRI brain scans from the Human.
  4. The present study applies informatics tools to aid and extend fMRI analysis of the coding mechanism of neural signals in the rodent olfactory system. Odor stimulation evokes unique spatial patterns of activity in the glomerular layer of the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB). An open-source software program, OdorMapBuilder, has been developed to process the high resolution anatomical and functional.
  5. To investigate changes in olfactory bulb (OB) volume in patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Materials and methods This multicentric retrospective study included a test group of 23 patients with NPH (10 male and 13 female patients) and a control group of 27 healthy participants without hydrocephalus
  6. Olfactory Bulb MRI and Paranasal Sinus CT Findings in Persistent COVID-19 Anosmia Sedat Giray Kandemirli , Aytug Altundag, Duzgun Yildirim, Deniz Esin Tekcan Sanli, Ozlem Saatci Uludag Universit
  7. We read with interest the article by Eliezer et al. 1 The authors investigated MRI findings of COVID-19 patients with loss of sense of smell, finding complete olfactory cleft obstruction in the early stages of the disease in 19 patients, which disappeared 1-month follow-up in 12 cases. The study the olfactory bulb volume showed no significant differences between COVID-19 patients and healthy.

Yang X, Renken R, Hyder F, Siddeek M, Greer C, et al. (1998) Dynamic mapping at the laminar level of odor-elicited responses in rat olfactory bulb by functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 7715-7720. View Article Google Scholar 45 Volumetric analysis of their olfactory bulb volume was done using MRI and specialized software.ResultsIt was found that the olfactory bulb volume was significantly smaller in patients (19.98±5.88mm3) when compared to control mean (39.6±13.8mm3) and there was a significant increase in the olfactory bulb volumes in patients who underwent. The team focused on the brain's olfactory bulb that controls our ability to smell and the brainstem, which regulates breathing and heart rate. Based on earlier evidence, both areas are thought to be highly susceptible to COVID-19. Indeed, the MRI images revealed in both regions an unusual number of bright spots, a sign of inflammation

size and olfactory bulb and MRI - PubMed - NCB

  1. Scent molecules activate olfactory receptors and signals travel up the olfactory nerves to the olfactory bulb, and then on to the rest of the brain via the olfactory tract. From Wikipedia. However, remarkably, Weiss et al.'s five women seem to have entirely normal sense of smell despite lacking any visible OBs on brain MRI scans
  2. Comparison of MRI with individual glomeruli in Nissl staining from the same olfactory bulb indicated that the MEMRI contrast correlated with glomeruli. These results indicate that high resolution MEMRI can indeed detect fundamental units of neural processing within the layers of the rodent brain as indicated by the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb
  3. Olfactory bulb volume was shown to be associated with odor identification, and Identification score was used as a global estimate of olfactory functioning. MRI Image Acquisition. Individual T 1-weighted MRI images were acquired on a 1.5 T Sonata Vision whole-body scanner (Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen,.
  4. Furthermore, olfactory bulb and entorhinal cortex atrophy are well described in AD. However, in AD, no studies have assessed the olfactory cortex as a whole and if sex effects are observed. Methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to scan 39 participants with an average age of 72 years and included men and women
  5. in or.
  6. Functional MRI of the Olfactory System in Conscious Dogs Hao Jia1, Oleg M. Pustovyy2, Paul Waggoner3, Ronald J. Beyers1, John Schumacher4, Chester Wildey5, Jay Barrett6, Edward Morrison2, Nouha Salibi7, Thomas S. Denney1,8, Vitaly J. Vodyanoy2, Gopikrishna Deshpande1,8* 1MRI Research Center, Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, United States of.
  7. separated by 3.5-

MR Imaging-Based Evaluations of Olfactory Bulb Atrophy in

  1. Odorant identity is believed to be encoded in the olfactory bulb (OB) by glomerular activity patterns. It has not yet been possible to visualize and compare entire patterns for different odorants in the same animal because of technical limitations. For this purpose we used high-resolution functional MRI at 7 T, combined with glomerular-layer flat maps, to reveal responses to aliphatic.
  2. as interpreted in the present study. Microbleeding (methaemoglobin) in the olfactory bulb is considered when there is hyperintense olfactory bulb, compared with the normal cortex or the normal contralateral bulb, on pre-gadolinium fat supression TIWI. Brain MRI of patients with COVID-19 was evaluated from April 1, 2020 to May 18, 2020
  3. The Science Explained. In the rodent brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) generates thousands of new olfactory bulb neurons every day. Three years ago, a paper in Nature announced the existence of adult neural stem cells in the SVZ lining the lateral ventricles of the human brain, but the authors could find no evidence of a pathway linking the SVZ to the olfactory bulb as in the rodent brain.
  4. The olfactory bulb is a structure found on the inferior (bottom) side of the cerebral hemispheres, located near the front of the brain.There is an olfactory bulb at this location in both cerebral hemispheres. The olfactory bulb is attached to the cerebral hemisphere by a long stalk often referred to as either the olfactory stalk or olfactory peduncle
  5. The olfactory tract is a bilateral bundle of afferent nerve fibers from the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb that connects to several target regions in the brain, including the piriform cortex, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex.It is a narrow white band, triangular on coronal section, the apex being directed upward.. It lies in the olfactory sulcus on the inferior surface of the.

MRI of the olfactory bulb region was performed in 18 patients (10 boys, eight girls). Results were abnormal in all patients tested, with olfactory bulbs absent (n = 15), hypoplastic (n = 1), or asymmetric (hypoplastic on one side and absent on the other) (n = 2; Fig. 1 and Table 1). By contrast, MRI of the hypothalamo-pituitary region performed. The mammalian olfactory system is unusual in that it has the ability to continuously regenerate its neurons during adulthood. This ability is associated with olfactory ensheathing glia. New olfactory receptor neurons must project their axons through the central nervous system to an olfactory bulb in order to be functional. The growth and regeneration of olfactory axons can be attributable to.

Olfactory nerve Radiology Reference Article

The medial orbital gyrus presents a well-marked antero-posterior sulcus, the olfactory sulcus. Its depth is an indicator of congenital anosmia. Additional images. Basal view of a human brain Olfactory sulcus Cerebrum. Optic and olfactory nerves.Inferior view. Deep dissection.. The olfactory receptors present in the olfactory epithelium project to the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb via the olfactory nerve. The axons from the mitral cells then travel to the brain via the olfactory tract and project primarily to the primary olfactory cortex (POC), olfactory tubercle, amygdala, and entorhinal cortex Magnetic resonance imaging of odorant activity-dependent migration of neural precursor cells and olfactory bulb growth. NeuroImage, 158, 232-241. [4] Shapiro E.M., Gonzalez-Perez O., Manuel García-Verdugo J., Alvarez-Buylla A., & Koretsky A.P. (2006). Magnetic resonance imaging of the migration of neuronal precursors generated in the adult. MRI simultaneously allows an evaluation of the olfactory bulb, the central relay of the olfactory system. In contrast to another study [4], we did not find a significant association between subjective olfactometry (psychophysical testing) and bulb volume on MRI The olfactory bulb (OB) is a highly significant structure in the processing of olfactory information. It is the first relay station from the peripheral olfactory system to higher order processing of olfactory information. In animals, OB continuously replace its local GABAergic interneurons which signifies [ 1 - 3] continuous generation of new.

COVID-19-induced anosmia associated with olfactory bulb

Thomann PA, Dos Santos V, Toro P, Schonknecht P, Essig M, Schroder J. Reduced olfactory bulb and tract volume in early Alzheimer's disease—a MRI study. Neurobiology of aging. 2009;30(5):838-41. pmid:17875348 The axons of the olfactory sensory neurons project to the olfactory bulb, where they synapse with the dendrites of the second-order neurons, which in turn project to the olfactory cortex. A schematic representation of 3 populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each expressing 1 different type of odorant receptor, are shown in different colors Harmful environmental agents cause nasal inflammation, and chronic nasal inflammation induces a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and reversible atrophy of the olfactory bulb (OB). Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying this inflammation-induced OB atrophy by histologically and biochemically comparing the OB changes in mouse models of nasal inflammation and odor deprivation Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) can sense both odorants and airflows. In the olfactory bulb (OB), the coding of odor information has been well studied, but the coding of mechanical stimulation is rarely investigated. Unlike odor-sensing functions of OSNs, the airflow-sensing functions of OSNs are also largely unknown. Here, the activity patterns elicited by mechanical airflow in male rat OBs.

Diagnostic Findings in 60 Cases of Isolated and SyndromicMR Imaging–Based Evaluations of Olfactory Bulb Atrophy in

Olfactory neuroblastoma Radiology Reference Article

Olfactory bulb | The Fragrance Conservator First documented brain abnormality visualized in a COVID19 patient with loss of smell: By MRI, cortical and olfactory bulb changes that resolved when symptoms disappeared 28 days later. Medicine. Close. 3.7k. Posted by 11 months ago. Archived ABSTRACT We have applied functional MRI (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) image-contrast to map odor-elicited olfactory responses at the lam-inar level in the rat olfactory bulb (OB) elicited by iso-amyl acetate (10-2 dilution of saturated vapor) with spatial and temporal resolutions of 220x220x1,000 um and 36 s. Th Olfactory sensory neurons extend their axons solely to the olfactory bulb, which is dedicated to odor information processing. The olfactory bulb is divided into multiple layers, with different types of neurons found in each of the layers. Therefore, neurons in the olfactory bulb have conventionally been categorized based on the layers in which their cell bodies are found; namely. There is increasing histopathological evidence that the olfactory bulb and tract (OBT) is a primary focus of neurodegenerative changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Correspondingly, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant atrophy of the OBT in manifest AD. Whether these alterations are already present in mild cognitive impairment, the assumed preclinical stage of AD, has.

Dr Balaji Anvekar FRCR: Cranial Nerves Normal MRI Anatomy

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Odorant Activity-Dependent

Volumetric analysis of their olfactory bulb volume was done using MRI and specialized software. Results: It was found that the olfactory bulb volume was significantly smaller in patients (19.98 ± 5.88 mm3) when compared to control mean (39.6 ± 13.8 mm3) and there was a significant increase in the olfactory bulb volumes in patients who. Olfactory bulb size may change as sense of smell changes. The olfactory bulb in the brain appears to change in size in a way that corresponds to individual alterations in sense of smell, according. Although recovery of olfactory function has been observed in a portion of posttraumatic patients either spontaneously or after treatment [3-6], it is difficult to use the olfactory function test or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to directly assess the connectivity of the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb METHOD: Olfactory psychophysical measures and MRI scans of olfactory bulbs were acquired from 19 healthy first-degree relatives, 20 healthy comparison subjects with similar age and gender distributions, and the 11 patient probands of these relatives. Olfactory bulb volumes were measured by using a reliable region-of-interest procedure All scans were performed with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner (Magnetom Sonata; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using an eight-channel head coil. Volumes of the right and left olfactory bulb were determined using the MRI scans of the brain and a standardized protocol for olfactory bulb volume analysis

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Volumetric study of the olfactory bulb in patients with

The self-renewing capacity of the olfactory bulb inhibitory neuronal network leaves open the possibility that the critical period may never end in the olfactory system. In fact, odor experiences have been reported to modulate adult olfactory bulb functions (Rabin, 1988;Rosselli-Austin and Williams, 1990; Woo and Leon, 1995). If activity. In the olfactory bulb, axons of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) expressing the same olfactory receptor converge on specific glomeruli. These afferents form axodendritic synapses with mitral/tufted and periglomerular cell dendrites, whereas the dendrites of mitral/tufted cells and periglomerular interneurons form dendrodendritic synapses. The two types of intraglomerular synapses appear to be. Additionally, a positive correlation of OB volume with age-related olfactory function has been reported (13).Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the olfactory system became possible in the late 1980s (14). Further development of MRI techniques, including improvements in spatial resolution, enabled the assessment of OB volume (15) Olfactory bulb blood flow responses following olfactory nerve stimulation. The effects of various intensities (a, b) and frequencies (c-e) of electrical stimulation of the unilateral olfactory nerve on regional blood flow in the olfactory bulb ipsilateral to the stimulus.a, b Stimulus frequency, 20 Hz.c-e Stimulus intensity, 300 μA.a, c Sample recordings of regional blood flow in the. Olfactory bulb, structure located in the forebrain of vertebrates that receives neural input about odours detected by cells in the nasal cavity. The axons of olfactory receptor ( smell receptor) cells extend directly into the highly organized olfactory bulb, where information about odours is processed. brain structure of the cat

What's that smell? A pictorial review of the olfactory

Relationship Between Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment Based on Olfactory Function Assessment and Functional MRI The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators Olfactory avoidance testing indicated disruptions in olfactory bulb neurogenesis were associated with impaired olfactory discrimination in mice post-injury. Conclusion The data demonstrate a focal cortical contusion injury to the left somatosensory cortex disrupts SVZ-olfactory bulb neurogenesis and impairs olfactory discrimination and motor. Brain of the dog on MRI - Atlas of veterinary anatomy. This anatomical module of vet-Anatomy is based on sections of the normal canine brain on MRI. More than 400 images are available. They have been obtained on a 2 years old healthy labrador retriever on a 1.5 T MRI. Images are organized as We have applied functional MRI (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) image-contrast to map odor-elicited olfactory responses at the laminar level in the rat olfactory bulb (OB) elicited by iso-amyl acetate (10<SUP>-2</SUP> dilution of saturated vapor) with spatial and temporal resolutions of 220×220×1,000 μm and 36 s. The laminar structure of the OB was clearly depicted. The current report used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to objectively measure olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcal depth in patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls. Additional measures were obtained to assess olfactory function. The olfactory bulb and sulcus were manually traced on structural 3T.

Absent olfactory bulb Radiology Case Radiopaedia

Hatsfield syndrome: a mild form of holoprosencephaly with olfactory bulb agenesis and ectrodactyly but the patient has normal physical appearance. Septo-optic-pituitary dysplasia (de Mosier syndrome) which has hypoplastic olfactory bulbs but the MRI showed no significantly abnormalities of the optic tracts and septum In vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from olfactory bulb mitral cells were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats (P21-25) anaesthetized with a mixture of ketamine/xylazine (50/5 mg kg −1. Background Before the deposition of amyloid-beta plaques and the onset of learning memory deficits, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience olfactory dysfunction, typified by a reduced ability to detect, discriminate, and identify odors. Rodent models of AD, such as the Tg2576 and APP/PS1 mice, also display impaired olfaction, accompanied by aberrant in vivo or in vitro gamma.

Olfactory Bulb Volume and Olfactory Sulcus Depth in

Synonyms for olfactory bulb in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for olfactory bulb. 3 words related to olfactory bulb: neural structure, olfactory brain, rhinencephalon. What are synonyms for olfactory bulb Olfactory Bulb: Structure, Anatomy and Functions. He Olfactory bulb Is a fundamental structure for detecting odors. It is part of the olfactory system, and in humans it is in the back of the nasal cavities. There is an olfactory bulb for each cerebral hemisphere, and they are considered an evagination of the cortex The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. Contents 1 Anatomy 1.1 Main olfactory bulb 1.2 Accessory olfactory bulb 2 Evolution 3 See also 4 References 5 Additional images 6 External links Anatomy Olfactory dysfunction has been reported to occur already in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to increase with disease severity. In neuropathological research, the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the olfactory bulb and tract (OBT) of AD patients has been consistently demonstrated. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine.

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